SACRIMA Atlas

  • How to represent St. Jerome (and how not to do it)



    Dealing with the story of St. Jerome, Pacheco indicates two distinct ways of depicting this saint: one, in his penance in the desert, which is the most common, and the other one, in his cardinal’s costume.

    Conflict
    Inadequate manner Untruthfulness/Not probable/Not corresponding to history
    Mention
    Seville, 1649
    Subject
    St. Jerome
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Only theologians should Judge the religious aspects of art



    Molanus argues that only theologians are capable of judging whether art is in accordance with the viewpoints of the Church.

    Conflict
    Judging art
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Judgement of religious art
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Magistrates should take action against indecent art in public places



    Molanus calls for the removal of lascivious art from public areas by worldly authorities.

    Conflict
    Indecency/Impropriety Nudity/Obscenity/Lasciviousness
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Indecent art
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Bacchus is a token of the unworthiness of drunkenness



    Molanus condemns and ridicules the pagan gods and focusses on Bacchus.
    Conflict
    Heretical image Sacred vs. profane imagery
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Bacchus
  • Disbelief in the images of the saints, of the Virgin Mary and in relics

    Aragon


    An old Christian (cristiano viejo) from Portugal does not believe in images of saints and the Virgin Mary, nor in relics

    Conflict
    Iconoclasm/Critic to image cult
    Mention
    Aragon, 1579
    Subject
    Francis of Assisi ; Mary Magdalene ; Relics ; Virgin
  • Frontispiece of: Gilio, Giovanni Andrea, Due dialogi (1564), Camerino : Antonio Giojoso

    On the desirable education of a painter



    The subject of the passage is the inadequate training of contemporary artists in comparison to antiquity, to which the participants attribute the errors in art. They cite ancient artists, such as Eupompus of Sicyon, as a positive reference.

    Conflict
    Contemporary vs. ancient artist Untruthfulness/Not probable/Not corresponding to history
    Mention
    Fabriano, 1564
    Subject
    historic painter ; poetic painter
  • The correct way of depicting “Christ’s dispute with the doctors in the temple”



    Pacheco states in this passage how should be depicted the scene “Christ’s dispute with the doctors in the temple”. Also, he mentions the image made by Jeronimo Nadal as a good model to be followed.

    Conflict
    Mention
    Seville, 1649
    Subject
    Christ's dispute with the doctors in the temple
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Holy Scriptures are suitable decoration for churches



    Molanus refers to Early-Christian sources and the Council of Nice for the decoration of churches and confirms the suitabilty of stories from the Holy Scriptures for this scope.

    Conflict
    Visual tradition/Artistic model vs. written Tradition/History
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    New Testament ; Old Testament
  • Joseph holding a green branch as a sign of his virginity



    Molanus affirms that the green branch held by Joseph in paintings can only refer to his virginity.

    Conflict
    Acceptable errors Not corresponding to Scriptures Not corresponding with Church teaching/dogma
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Joseph
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Objects expressing sacrality



    Molanus explains that certain objects, such as the cross, the aureole, and the palm, can be used in images to express sacrality.

    Conflict
    Sacred vs. profane imagery
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Signs of sacrality
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    The memory of bad people will vanish, despite ordering many artworks of themselves



    Molanus argues that people will be recorded for their virtues, as the case of Apelles' paintings of Alexander the Great demonstrates.
    Conflict
    Iconoclasm/Critic to image cult
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Alexander the Great ; Apelles ; Lysipus
  • It is better not to befriend carvers and makers of images of saints

    Zaragoza


    A certain Beltrán de la Borda was accused of despising images because he said that the friends of the carvers and makers of saints were “guitones”

    Conflict
    Idolatry Lutheran
    Mention
    Aragon, 1588
    Subject
    Saints
  • The crucifixion



    In the course of the passage, the participants discuss elements of the crucifixion.

    Conflict
    Nails Not corresponding to Scriptures Untruthfulness/Not probable/Not corresponding to history
    Mention
    Fabriano, 1564
    Subject
    Crucifixion ; Helena ; Nails ; Placement of the crosses ; Thieves
  • How to represent St. John Baptist (and how not to do it)



    What concerns the life of the saints, Pacheco started his analysis with the iconography of St. John Baptist. In his analysis, he pointed out four things: the first, his age and countenance; the second, his vestments; the third, his insignia; the last, the occupations and exercises in which he should be painted. Some inadequate elements of depicting the St. observed by Pacheco were: with fur; without a lamb; without a cross; eating, decomposed, drinking from a cliff stretched out of his breast.

    Conflict
    Inadequate manner
    Mention
    Seville, 1649
    Subject
    St. John Baptist
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Depiction of the martyrs by painters is often done according to convenience and should not be analysed in a too detailed manner



    Molanus argues that the outer features of martyrs in paintings, such as their clothes and height, should not be taken too literally, since they are painted according to artistic convenience.

    Conflict
    Clothes anachronism/Errors/Adornment Figurative vs. literal reading
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Martyr
  • Devil in images of a dying people



    Molanus affirms that one can paint devils and demons in images of dying people.

    Conflict
    Judging art
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Presence of the devil in painting of dying man
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    On how to depict St. Marc



    Molanus discusses the exterior features of St. Mark, who would have been of the height and age of a mature man.

    Conflict
    Outer appearance Visual tradition/Artistic model vs. written Tradition/History
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    St. Mark
  • Painting of the Trinity described in the letter of the Suprema to the Inquisition

    Valencia


    Letter of the Suprema to the Inquisitiors of the town of Valencia describing some canvases that allegedly entered the kingdom and recommending that they be collected so that they do not continue to circulate.

    Conflict
    Lutheran
    Mention
    Valencia, 3. October 1571
    Subject
    Trinity
  • Burying old images

    Buitrago del Lozoya


    Some images, which were in the churches of San Miguel and San Antolin, were buried because they were considered to be to old and ridiculous

    Conflict
    Style/manner
    Mention
    Buitrago del Lozoya, 1649
    Subject
  • How to represent St. Catherine of Siena (and how not to do it)



    Dealing with the story of St. Catherine of Siena and how to represent it, Pacheco indicates three things to be analysed: that the saint had no external wounds, but they should be painted, and the way to paint them correctly.

    Conflict
    Impropriety Not corresponding with visual tradition Untruthfulness/Not probable/Not corresponding to history
    Mention
    Seville, 1649
    Subject
    St. Catherine of Siena
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Virgin Mary should not be depicted in pain while labouring



    Molanus argues that a recurrent depiction of the Virgin Mary during labour is incorrect and deviates from the Holy Scriptures and the teachings of the Church.

    Conflict
    Not corresponding to Scriptures
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Birth of Christ ; Midwives ; Virgin Mary
  • The Lord at the supper at the house of Martha and Mary



    Molanus condemns the depiction of Christ in blasphemous and funny manners in artworks about Christ in the house of Martha and Mary.

    Conflict
    Derision/Blasphemy Indecency/Impropriety
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Christ in the house of Martha and Mary
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Cupid is a poetic fiction



    Molanus condemns images of Cupid because the ordinary people do not understand his poetic meaning and therefore he only has negative effects on them.

    Conflict
    Figurative vs. literal reading Sacred vs. profane imagery
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Cupid
  • The correct way of depicting the “Baptism of Christ”



    Pacheco states in this passage how should be depicted the scene of “Baptism of Christ”. Also, he mentions the image made by Jeronimo Nadal as a good model to be followed, although the author comments on the necessity to be added a few more elements to the scene.

    Conflict
    Mention
    Seville, 1649
    Subject
    Baptism of Christ
  • Christ depicted as the Salvator Mundi



    Molanus assesses iconographic traditions which are based on well-established stories, here: Christ depicted as the Salvator Mundi.

    Conflict
    Visual tradition/Artistic model vs. written Tradition/History
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Jesus Christ ; Salvator Mundi