On the ornament of painting – The liberty of the istoria
In contrast to poetic painting, in historical painting, there is almost no freedom.
A diabolical and profane image of the Holy Trinity depicted with three faces or heads
While analysing the painting of the Holy Trinity, Pacheco condemned the iconography of it in which a man with three faces or heads is represented, in the manner of Janus or Gerión (Father Martin de Roa), called it as a “diabolical fiction” (Molanus): this iconography made sane people scandalised, as well as the ignorant man commit mistakes.
Good Thief is painted on Jesus his right hand
Molanus argues that the good thief has to be placed at the right of Christ.
Images of the Virgin Mary and their importance to popular devotion
Molanus affirms that the prevalence of certain iconographies is because of their popularity among the common people and that, as long as they do not contain impious elements, there is nothing wrong with this.
Artists follow the traditions of depicting Christ, Mary, and Apostles either by studying other paintings or the authorities
Molanus argues that artists should follow the pictorial tradition set by other artists or study the written sources regarding the subject.
Defamatory playing cards from France
Playing cards coming from France, on which there were defamatory figurations of the pope and the church
In this part of the dialogue, the participants discuss inadmissible sources that the artist should not use, such as the Infantia Salvatoris or the Acts of Clement. They also instruct the artist not to follow the opinion of the masses, but that of scholars, authoritative and approved authors.
How to represent St. George
Following Molanus’s studies, Pacheco confirms that the saint can be depicted with his armour knight, with the sign of the Cross, the sword, and the spear. Also, in an allegorical representation, painting the saint as a maiden with a lamb, is also possible.
Images containing dangerous errors should be banned, such as those depicting the Pope as the Antichrist or the Whore of Babylon
Molanus reaffirms that in churches no image must be present that could lead to a dangerous error among the uneducated.
The Infant Christ should not be depicted naked
Molanus condemns the artistic practice of depicting the Infant Jesus naked.
Images of the pagan gods and worldly philosophers are of little use for Christians
Molanus assesses the usefulness to Christians of images and statues of pagan gods and ancient philosophers and concludes that only in a few cases they are of value.
The Crucifix is just a stick
It’s indicated that Juan Guadalid said that the Christians believe in “that” stick because was believed that they worshipped on the crosses that were on the roads, which were made of sticks.
How to depict the “presentation of the Christ-child in the temple”
Using one artwork made by Jeronimo Nadal and one painted by Mase Pedro Campaña as examples, Pacheco analysed how to represent the story about the presentation of the Christ-child in the temple.
Paintings are living scripture and also of great use to the educated to avoid sins
Molanus discusses another time the usefulness of ancient images to those who have fallen into sin or who run the risk of doing so, this is also true for the educated.
Images with harmless erros can be left in place to avoid unrest among the populace
Molanus comments on iconographies which are derived from apocryphal sources, in particular those which are well spread among the populace. His stance on this matter is rather balanced: as long as the artworks do not contain any dangerous errors and they have been approved by the regional authority, they do not have to be taken away from their respective locations so that common people could not be disturbed by such actions.
Only artworks approved by the Bishop can be placed in churches or other public places
Molanus reaffirms the viewpoints of the Council of Trent that only artworks approved by churchly authorities should be allowed to decorate churches; he illuminates this with an example of St. Mark.
Preserving an image of parents and ancestors is allowed
Molanus defends the use of images of parents and other ancestors.
Anna Ynes does not believe in the image of the crucifix
The Old Christian Anna Ynes called “christianellos” the people who have in their ceremony the crucifix close to the bed when is given to the sick the extreme unction.
The mistake of depicting the Holy Trinity in the Virgin Mary’s womb
Pacheco desaproved the painting of the Holy Trinity in the Virgin Mary’s womb since such composition seems as “if all the three divine Persons had clothed themselves in our flesh.”
On his way to Jerusalem Saul fell from his horse blinded by the light of Jesus’ appearance
Molanus argues that in the story of the Conversion of Saul it is very likely that he was riding a horse, as is often depicted by painters, despite the lack of reference to this in the Scriptures.
The depiction of the wounds of Christ
Molanus argues that the depiction of Christ’s wounds is incorrect and the prevalence of these paintings is the popularity among the commoners, however, it does not constitute a dangerous error.
The depiction of the Virgin Mary
Molanus refers to Epiphanius for the correct depiction of the Virgin Mary: as a humble and graceful woman.
Letter of the Suprema to the inquisitors of the city of Valencia warning of the entry into the kingdom of “pernicious” canvases
Letter from the Suprema to the inquisitors of the city of Valencia warning of the entry into the kingdom of “pernicious” canvases.