In contrast to poetic painting, in historical painting, there is almost no freedom.
While analysing the painting of the Holy Trinity, Pacheco condemned the iconography of it in which a man with three faces or heads is represented, in the manner of Janus or Gerión (Father Martin de Roa), called it as a “diabolical fiction” (Molanus): this iconography made sane people scandalised, as well as the ignorant man commit mistakes.
Molanus affirms that the prevalence of certain iconographies is because of their popularity among the common people and that, as long as they do not contain impious elements, there is nothing wrong with this.
Artists follow the traditions of depicting Christ, Mary, and Apostles either by studying other paintings or the authorities
Molanus argues that artists should follow the pictorial tradition set by other artists or study the written sources regarding the subject.
In this part of the dialogue, the participants discuss inadmissible sources that the artist should not use, such as the Infantia Salvatoris or the Acts of Clement. They also instruct the artist not to follow the opinion of the masses, but that of scholars, authoritative and approved authors.
Following Molanus’s studies, Pacheco confirms that the saint can be depicted with his armour knight, with the sign of the Cross, the sword, and the spear. Also, in an allegorical representation, painting the saint as a maiden with a lamb, is also possible.
Images containing dangerous errors should be banned, such as those depicting the Pope as the Antichrist or the Whore of Babylon
Molanus reaffirms that in churches no image must be present that could lead to a dangerous error among the uneducated.
Molanus assesses the usefulness to Christians of images and statues of pagan gods and ancient philosophers and concludes that only in a few cases they are of value.
Using one artwork made by Jeronimo Nadal and one painted by Mase Pedro Campaña as examples, Pacheco analysed how to represent the story about the presentation of the Christ-child in the temple.
Molanus discusses another time the usefulness of ancient images to those who have fallen into sin or who run the risk of doing so, this is also true for the educated.
Molanus comments on iconographies which are derived from apocryphal sources, in particular those which are well spread among the populace. His stance on this matter is rather balanced: as long as the artworks do not contain any dangerous errors and they have been approved by the regional authority, they do not have to be taken away from their respective locations so that common people could not be disturbed by such actions.
Molanus reaffirms the viewpoints of the Council of Trent that only artworks approved by churchly authorities should be allowed to decorate churches; he illuminates this with an example of St. Mark.
Molanus defends the use of images of parents and other ancestors.
The Old Christian Anna Ynes called “christianellos” the people who have in their ceremony the crucifix close to the bed when is given to the sick the extreme unction.
Pacheco desaproved the painting of the Holy Trinity in the Virgin Mary’s womb since such composition seems as “if all the three divine Persons had clothed themselves in our flesh.”
Molanus argues that in the story of the Conversion of Saul it is very likely that he was riding a horse, as is often depicted by painters, despite the lack of reference to this in the Scriptures.
Molanus argues that the depiction of Christ’s wounds is incorrect and the prevalence of these paintings is the popularity among the commoners, however, it does not constitute a dangerous error.
Letter of the Suprema to the inquisitors of the city of Valencia warning of the entry into the kingdom of “pernicious” canvases
Letter from the Suprema to the inquisitors of the city of Valencia warning of the entry into the kingdom of “pernicious” canvases.