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  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Images of protestant leaders should also be prohibited by authorities



    Molanus argues that images of protestant reformers and other heritical figures should be prohibited by authorities.

    Conflict
    Heretical image Lutheran
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    heretic leaders ; Luther, Martin ; Melanchton
  • The resurrection of Christ took place from a closed tomb



    Molanus affirms that the resurrection of Christ should be depicted with a closed tomb and not with an open as some painters tend to do

    Conflict
    Not corresponding to Scriptures Not corresponding with Church teaching/dogma
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Resurrection of Christ
  • Lascivious images should be banned



    Molanus argues that indecent and lascivious art, such as naked Venuses or Satyrs, should be forbidden because they are prostitution to the eye.

    Conflict
    Nudity/Obscenity/Lasciviousness
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Pan ; Phallus ; Satyr ; Venus
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Useful representations derived from the pagans



    Molanus discusses the usefulness of antique images of cities and countries.

    Conflict
    Sacred vs. profane imagery
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Cities ; Countries
  • Arnau Dandes does not believe in images

    Aragon


    Arnau Dandes, a native of France, disbelieved in the image of Mary and of God

    Conflict
    Lutheran
    Mention
    Aragon, 1586
    Subject
    Virgin
  • Frontispiece of: Gilio, Giovanni Andrea, Due dialogi (1564), Camerino : Antonio Giojoso

    The monstrous



    The participants have already spoken about grotesques (monstrosities) in advance.

    Conflict
    Decorum License Monstrosity/Unacceptable configuration
    Mention
    Fabriano, 1564
    Subject
    Monstrosity ; poetic painting
  • The correct way of representing the clothes of Christ in the “The procession to Calvary with the cross”

    Seville, Cathedral


    The Passion of Christ iconography was an important topic for Pacheco. The author in this passage analyses the scene of “The procession to Calvary with the cross”, and presented the artwork made by Luis de Vargas as an example of an inadequate manner of depicting Christ: wearing only one tunic, instead of two garments on him, mantle, and skirt (the correct manner).

    Conflict
    Inadequate manner
    Mention
    Seville, 1649
    Subject
    Passion of Christ ; the procession to Calvary with the cross
  • The Virgin Mary meditating on our redemption during the Annunciation



    The position of Mary at the moment of the annunciation is not clearly described in the Scriptures, therefore painters should depict her according to the common opinion on this matter and what seems most probable from the Scriptures.

    Conflict
    Not corresponding to Scriptures Visual tradition/Artistic model vs. written Tradition/History
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Annunciation
  • Christ seated on the cold stone



    Molanus affirms that the depiction of Christ on a stone is not an error despite not being derived from the Scriptures.

    Conflict
    Acceptable errors Untruthfulness/Not probable/Not corresponding to history
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Christ sitting on the cold stone
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    It is useful to write the names of lesser-known saints and martyrs in their paintings



    Molanus argues that because of the large number of saints, it is advisable to write their names as captions in the paintings.

    Conflict
    Judging art Outer appearance
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Saints ; St. Gabriel ; St. Michael
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Faith, Hope, and Charity and their mother, Wisdom, are official martyrs of the Church



    Molanus argues that the Three Graces and their mother have a very long tradition in the Church and attempts to remove them from the litanies should not be tolerated.

    Conflict
    Iconoclasm/Critic to image cult
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Three Graces
  • Obscene offense to the image of the Virgin Mary

    Aragon


    Conflict
    Derision/Blasphemy
    Mention
    Aragon, 1580s?
    Subject
    Virgin Mary
  • An iconography no longer used of St. Anne



    Pacheco is very clear: artists should erase forever from their memories what was one time a valid model of depicting Saint Anne, who was seated, with the Virgin Mary and Jesus as a child in her arms, and accompanied by three husbands, three daughters, and many grandchildren.

    Conflict
    Inadequate manner Indecency/Impropriety
    Mention
    Seville, 1649
    Subject
    St. Anne accompanied by three husbands, three daughters and grandsons, close to Mary with Jesus in her arms
  • How to represent St. Philip (and how not to do it)



    Depicting St. Philip as a eunuch is inadequate according to Pacheco study of the iconography of the saint. The author states that “there is no foundation for painting the holy Apostle as a eunuch, but as El Mudo [Juan Fernández de Navarrete] painted him in El Escorial, following Raphael: as a venerable old man, eighty-seven years of age”.

    Conflict
    Inadequate manner
    Mention
    Seville, 1649
    Subject
    St. Philip (Apostle)
  • Children cannot receive beneficiaries



    Molanus condemns the depiction of the story of Salome since it could provide a false argument for giving beneficiaries to children.

    Conflict
    Not corresponding with Church teaching/dogma
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Jacob ; Jesus Christ ; Mary Salome ; St. John the Evangelist
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    The decoration of churches is an ancient practice, but should not be done in a profane manner



    Molanus confirms that the decoration of churches and other sacred places is an old Biblical tradition, however profane decorations are not allowed.

    Conflict
    Sacred vs. profane imagery
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Profane decorations
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Idols should not be used as artistic motifs



    Molanus condemns pagan artworks as idols that need to be abolished but also emphasises that what is allowed in writing is also allowed in art.

    Conflict
    Heretical image Sacred vs. profane imagery
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    idolatry
  • Series of twelve images with the Passion of Christ, which are considered suspect of Lutheranism

    Mexico City


    Edict of the Holy Office of Mexico describing some cavases that allegedly entered the kingdom and recommending that they be collected so that they do not continue to circulate. The Inquisition express the fear that the images convey Lutheran errors

    Conflict
    Lutheran
    Mention
    Mexico City, 28. April 1574
    Subject
    Passion of Christ
  • Frontispiece of: Gilio, Giovanni Andrea, Due dialogi (1564), Camerino : Antonio Giojoso

    On bearded Angels and the Crucifixion

    Rimini, Dominican Church; Fabriano, San Venanzio


    In this part of the dialogue, the characters discuss the artists of the past.

    Conflict
    Beard Capriccio Judging art Nails
    Mention
    Fabriano, 1564
    Subject
    Annunciation/Death of the Virgin ; Crucifixion
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Images of the Trinity in the bosom of the Virgin Mary are devoid of beauty and religion



    Molanus criticises a particular type of statue of the Virgin Mary that could be opened up and held an image of the Trinity in this inner compartment. According to him, this creates a wrong illusion about the relationship between Virgin Mary and the Trinity.

    Conflict
    Monstrosity/Unacceptable configuration Not corresponding to Scriptures Not corresponding with Church teaching/dogma
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Trinity ; Virgin Mary
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Christ kneeling for the Father



    Molanus argues that Christ did not kneel for his Father, condemning it as humiliating and a sign of indignity.

    Conflict
    Not corresponding to Scriptures Not corresponding with Church teaching/dogma
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Christ hanging on the Cross
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    The placement of saints in images should not lead to questions about their position in heaven



    Molanus discusses the question of the placement of a saint in an artwork and the assumed correspondence to its position in heaven, but he argues that one should not worry too much about this.

    Conflict
    Not corresponding with Church teaching/dogma Visual tradition/Artistic model vs. written Tradition/History
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Saints ; The position of saints in paintings
  • Frostispiece of Molanus, De historia sanctarum imaginum et picturarum (1617), Antwerp, Gasparus Bellerus

    Moral images of Christian origin



    Molanus nuances the usefulness to moral instruction of profane art in comparison to Christian writings and art since they offer much more examples.

    Conflict
    Sacred vs. profane imagery
    Mention
    Leuven, 1617
    Subject
    Moral imagery
  • Disbelief in the image of the crucifix

    Aragon


    Jeanne d’Obaque, from the Béarn area, disbelieving in the image of the crucifix, hit the object several times

    Conflict
    Iconoclasm/Critic to image cult Lutheran
    Mention
    Aragon, 1575
    Subject
    Crucifix
  • Frontispiece of: Gilio, Giovanni Andrea, Due dialogi (1564), Camerino : Antonio Giojoso

    The extent of the poetic license



    After the participants had already limited the poetic licence, now follows the final definition of the licence (at least for poetic painting).

    Conflict
    Capriccio Contemporary vs. ancient artist Decorum Judging art License
    Mention
    Fabriano, 1564
    Subject
    poetic license ; poetic painting ; regole ; rules